Peace Education In India Research Papers

Peace Situation among the Students of Secondary Level in West Bengal

Sarkar SR*

Junior Researcher, Ramakrishna Mission Sikshanamandira, Belur Math, West Bengal, India

*Corresponding Author:
Sarkar SR
Ramakrishna Mission Sikshanamandira
Belur Math, West Bengal, India
Tel: 08798243703
E-mail:[email protected]

Received Date: December 12, 2016; Accepted Date: December 19, 2016; Published Date: December 23, 2016

Citation: Sarkar SR (2016) Peace Situation among the Students of Secondary Level in West Bengal. Arts Social Sci J 7: 238. doi: 10.4172/2151-6200.1000238

Copyright: © 2016 Sarkar SR. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Humans are social animals; their success in life is largely a matter of successful social relations and social relations are fully depends on peace situation. ‘Peace Situation’ in education is an important topic all over the world. The concept and status of peace ranks are most controversial issues in the present world. Peace always carries a positive connotation; almost everybody admits to maintain peace; world peace is widely accepted as prime goals of humanity. James Page rightly stated ‘peace situation’ be carry out always as “encouraging a commitment to peace as a settled disposition and enhancing the confidence of the individual as an individual agent of peace”. It is fact that school children regularly observe various peace disturbing behaviour, violent or crime in their school. In this situation, it is urgent need to know the peace situation in schools so that teachers, management, related stakeholders can intervene for whole disturbances in peace situation of the schools.

Keywords

Stakeholders; Violent; Peace; Global society

Introduction

A school is considered as the miniature form of society. Both social goodness and evils are reflected in school. Though ‘live and let live’ is the basic objective of social behaviour but due to fostering serious selfish attitude we have lost the spirit of ‘live together’. The behavioural approach among the students in macro level has been influenced by this contemporary social environment. How we can constraint this radical change through critical investigation and analysis is-this is the first arena of this paper. In education peace situation depends on attitude of learners and counselor. Finally peace situation among the students depends on multi variables. Physical environment of the educational institution; flexibility of learning; quality of learning; use of language as a mode of communication; relation between stake-holders and counsellors-either it is coming together or holding together; awareness and accountability of guardians-so many factors are responsible. The study seeks to determine the peace situation of secondary level students under RKMSM practice teaching schools.

Peace education’ and ‘Peace situation’ in the field of Education are essential topics of discussion all over the world because world peace is widely seen as one of the noblest goals of humanity. The concept of peace ranks among the most controversial in present time. Peace undoubtedly carries a positive connotation; almost nobody admits to opposing peace. But peace is often defined as the absence of war the definition is sample about misleading. This is because war is usually equated with armed conflict between countries. However, what happened in Rwanda or Bosnia was not war of this kind yet, it a represented a violation or cessation of peace. While very war leads to absence of peace, every absence of peace need not take the form of war [1-5].

James Page suggests ‘peace situation’ be thought of as “encouraging a commitment to peace as a settled disposition and enhancing the confidence of the individual as an individual agent of peace”. Montessori has said that “establishing peace is the work of education: all politics can do is to keep us out of war”. In 1937 she said: “Our hope for the future lies not in the formal knowledge that we pass on, but in the normal development of the new man” (Education for Peace). So the promotion of peace through education is at the heart of UNESCO’s mission. Peace in its most positive aspects embraces ideas of justice, global sustainability and the eradication of structures that promote insecurity: poverty, hunger, malnutrition and lack of access to resources. Peace education does not just mean a peaceful classroom.

In India, Gandhi was one of the great activist theoreticians of the 20th century. At a wider level in terms of Gandhi’s impact on peace education specially in India evolved a new techniques of political action based on moral persuasion non-violence, and a strict adherence to truth as one sees it. Our University Education Commission, 1948-49 also suggests enhancing and inculcating peace education among the students and maintaining the peace situation in our educational institutions.

Violence in its various forms such as conflict, intolerance, confrontation and discordance has engulfed the global society as well as among the student’s community all over the world.

Alarming increase in violence such as drug abuse, sex abuse, religious prejudice, physical cruelty, ability discrimination, incidence of shooting, stabbing, suicide as well as other forms of personal and social threats in school life in developed countries and also in our country is a living problem today. So, in this time it is very necessary to ensure that what is the peace situation in our state’s as well as our country’s educational institutions. It seems schools have become “transmission points of violence” as rightly pointed out in the National Curriculum Framework, 2005 [6-8].

Objectives of the Study

The objectives are given below:

O1: To study the difference in peace situation between the students of elementary level and secondary level.

O2: To study the present scenario of peace situation of students among the practice teaching schools under RKMSM.

Hypotheses of the Study

The following hypotheses are taken for the present enquiry:

Ho1: There would be no significant difference in peace situation between the students of elementary level and secondary level.

Ho2: There would be no significant difference in peace situation among the schools which are taken for this study.

Delimitation of the Study

The study has the following delimitations:

• The study is delimited to those students who are studying at the elementary level and secondary level of West Bengal.

• The study is delimited to only two districts of West Bengal.

• The study is delimited to only five practice teaching schools under Ramakrishna Mission Sikshanamandira (RKMSM).

Methodology of the Study

Variables

Major variables: Peace Situation of the School.

Categorical variables: Elementary level and Secondary level student.

Students belonging to different practice teaching schools under RKMSM.

Sample

The 185 secondary level students were selected randomly from the five (5) practice teaching schools under RKMSM of Hooghly or Howrah district (Tables 1 and 2).

Students’ LevelNo.TOTAL
Elementary level students103185
Secondary level students82

Table 1: Sample frame on the student level wise.

No. of SchoolSchool 1School 2School 3School 4School 5Total Sample
No. of Students3541432541185

Table 2: Sample frame on the school wise.

Tools of the study

The present researcher used a standardized scale as research tool, “Peace Situation in School (PSS)”. The scale was developed and standardized by Paul and Guha.

Description of Peace Situation in School (PSS) Scale

Peace Situation in School (PSS) scale was developed for measuring the peace situation in school. It was also a 5 Point Likert type scale and it had high reliability (0.77) and validity (0.81). PSS scale was consisted of 25 items, among which some items were based on “in-class peace situation” dimension and some items were based on “out-class peace situation” dimension [9-12].

Scoring procedure of PSS: The categories of responses were ‘strongly agree’, ‘agree’, ‘undecided’, ‘disagree’, ‘strongly disagree’ and ‘5’, ‘4’, ‘3’, ‘2’, ‘1’ were the respective scores awarded for the responses.

Validity and reliability of the tools

Content validity was done by the expert rating of items by two experts. The inter-rating agreement model was used to see reliability of the raters. The coefficient of content validity of ‘PSS’ was 0.81 and reliability of the scale was computed by using Cronbach’s Alpha and was found 0.77.

Procedure of Data Collection

The researcher personally visited the five (5) practice teaching schools under RKMSM for the collection of data in one phase. At first, students were given a short instruction regarding filling in of their response sheet. They asked to response according to their own belief and thought without any consultation with another student and to submit the above responded sheets.

Analysis and Interpretation

The results of the study are presented in the following (Table 3).

First Categorical VariablesNMeanStd. DeviationStd. Error Mean
Elementary level103102.51412.6731.248
Secondary level82100.65814.3641.586
Total185101.691813.44380.9884

Table 3: Group statistics of PSS under categorical variables.

Objective wise analysis of data

To fulfill the 2 objectives, 2 null hypotheses are formulated and tested here. Interpretations of the results are also given below

Objective No. 1

O1: To study the difference in peace situation between the students of elementary level and secondary level.

To fulfill this objective, one null hypothesis is formulated and tested which is as follows:

Ho1: There would be no significant difference in peace situation between the students of elementary level and secondary level.

Testing of Ho1

To test the Ho2, descriptive and inferential statistics are computed and the above results are given below (Table 4):

Group statisticst- Test for equality of means
  
First Categorical VariableNMeanStd. DeviationStd. Error MeantdfSig.(2 tailed)
Elementary level103102.51412.6731.2481.973**1830.352
Secondary level82100.65814.3641.586

**not significant at 0.05 level of significance

Table 4: Group statistics and t test for equality of mean differences in peace situation between the students of elementary level and secondary level.

Gropes: Students of elementary level and secondary level.

Interpretation 1

From the analyses in Table 2 it is seen that in case of peace situation between the students of elementary level and secondary level the calculated t (183) value is 1.973 and p value is 0.352 (p>0.05). Hence, t is no significant at 0.05 levels. So, Ho2 is not rejected and it can be safely said that elementary level student are not significantly different from the secondary level students in respect to their peace situation in school [13].

Objective no. 2

O2: To study the present scenario of peace situation of students among the practice teaching schools under RKMSM.

To fulfill this objective, one null hypothesis is formulated and tested which is as follows:

Ho2: There would be no significant difference in peace situation among the schools which are taken for this study.

Testing of Ho2

To test the Ho2, descriptive and inferential statistics are computed and the above results are given below (Table 5):

Group statistics      F- Test for equality of means
Second Categorical VariableNMeanStd. DeviationStd. Error MeanFdfSig.(2 tailed)
School 135100.88513.9972.3652.421**1800.6
School 241103.68212.9642.024
School 34399.30216.5822.528
School 425103.3610.982.196
School 541101.87811.0971.733

**Belur High School=1, Bhadrakali High School=2, Uttarpara Amarendranath School=3, Makhla High School=4, Kotrong Bhupendra Smriti Vidyalaya=5.
**Not significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Table 5: Group statistics and ‘F’ test (ANOVA) for equality of mean differences in peace situation of students in school.

Interpretation 2

To identify the significant difference, if any, peace situation among the different practice teaching schools under RKMSM by ANNOVA, 5 Schools were conveniently selected from practice teaching schools under RKMSM here total sample acts as a sample frame. Descriptive statics of each group of students have been shown in Table 3.

The Major Findings

In the light of the objective to find out the peace situation in school under different categorical variables. Peace Situation in School (PSS) was applied. After scoring, the data were analyzed through MS Excel 2010. The findings are as follows:

To study the difference in peace situation between the students of elementary level and secondary level [14,15].

• The mean score of PSS among 185 students in 5 schools was found 101.691 which is above the average (score ranged from 25 to 125). Thus from this statistics it may assume that school students under RKMSM practice teaching school of West Bengal possess a moderate positive peace situation towards school.

• Elementary level student are not significantly different from secondary level student in respect to their peace situation in School. The mean score of elementary level student (102.514) of PSS was slightly higher than secondary level student mean scored (100.658). It means that elementary level student insignificantly possesses a positive peace situation in School than the secondary level student in learning process in school.

• Elementary level student are not significantly different from the secondary level students in respect to their peace situation in school.

• The mean score of PSS among 185 students in 5 schools was found 101.691 which is above the average (score ranged from 25 to 125). Thus from this statistics it may assume that school students under RKMSM practice teaching school of West Bengal possesses a moderate positive peace situation towards school.

• The mean score of peace situation in different schools (*) are: School 1(100.885) School 2 (103.682), School 3 (99.302), School 4 (103.36) and School 5 (101.878). through the analysis it is clear that School 2 (103.682) of PSS was slightly higher than rest 4 school’s mean score School 1 (100.885), School 3 (99.302), School 4 (103.36), School 5 (101.878).

• There will be no significant difference in peace situation among the schools which are taken for this study.

Discussion

To describe the peace situation in school it is clear that the mean score of PSS among students in schools. Elementary level student are not significantly different from secondary level student in respect to their peace situation in School. The mean score of elementary level student of PSS was slightly higher than secondary level student mean score. It means that elementary level student insignificantly possesses a positive peace situation in School than the secondary level student in learning process in school.

Interact with each other. It means that effective peace situation possess a positive attitude of students towards their school in the learning process. There may some factors such as violence among students, selfishness, ignorance, delinquency nature of students, truancy imbalance socio-economic status of students, high aspiration of students, adverse pupil-pupil relationship that alter the peace situation in school . These factors of peace situation may be considered as variable of further study to find out the impact of these factors for restoring peace in schools.

The mean score of peace situation in different schools are School but all are higher than the average score so from this statistics it may assume that school students under RKMSM practice teaching school of West Bengal possess a moderate positive peace attitude towards school and there will be no significant difference in peace situation among the schools which are taken for this study.

Conclusion

The social culture and setting may play a vital role in restoring peace in school. The peace attitude towards school and the peace situation in school does not depend upon the variation in elementary or secondary level of student under RKMSM practice teaching school but the peace attitude towards school is varying school to school. Students? attitude towards school and peace situation in school have a positive relationship which may encourage us that if some measures are to be taken to grow positive attitude towards school, the peace situation in school may be better than existing situation. After all, humans are social animals; their success in life is largely a matter of successful social relations. Finally it is to say, teachers may plant the seeds of peace knowledge and practice, water them with care and love, nurture them with patience and tolerance right now so that peace situation in schools can be enhanced. Peace is more than the absence of certain societal maladies. Peace requires not only the absence of violence but also the presence of justice. A society in which one group is oppressed by another lacks peace even in the absence of violence, because the oppression itself constitutes evil.

Learning to make a living is not the sole reason for getting education; there is another, equally important byproduct: learning to make a life, a life that is beneficial, useful and peaceful. After all, humans are social animals; their success in life is largely a matter of successful social relations. Quite evidently, student age is the crucially important period which enriches one’s personal life, nurtures social adjustments, fosters friendship and understanding and affects one’s whole life pattern. Seen from this perspective, one could very well understand the critical necessity of teaching students, youth and young leaders the art of living together, in mutual respect, justice, love and peace.

References

  1. Bailliet C, Larsen KM (2015) Promoting peace through international law. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  2. Page JS (2008) Peace education: Exploring ethical and philosophical foundations. Information Age Publication, Charlotte.
  3. Webel C, Galtung J (2007) Handbook of peace and conflict studies. Routledge, London.
  4. ThichNhat H, Kotler A (1987) Being peace. Parallax Press, Berkeley, California.
  5. Navarro-Castro L, Nario-Galace J (2008) Peace Education. Center for PeaceEducation, Filipinas.
  6. Fedorenko V (2012) The role of civil society in peacebuilding, conflict resolution, and democratization. Rethink Institute, Washington, DC.
  7. Upadhyay P (2010) Education for peace: utopia or reality. Kalpaz Publications, Delhi.
  8. Borkar UA (2014)Transacting peace education in school using PETS-astudy. IOSR Journal of Research and Method in Education 4: 30-34.
  9. Toohey DE (2014) Introduction-the effect of inclusion and exclusion on positive peace. International Journal of Peace Studies 18: 1-4.
  10. Nair G (2010) Peace education and conflict resolution in school. Health Administrator 17: 38-42.
  11. Gregor LM (2006) Beyond the time and space of peace talks: re-appropriating the peace process in Srilanka. International Journal of Peace Studies 11: 39-57.
  12. Pruitt L (2011) Creating a musical dialogue for peace. International Journal of Peace Studies 16: 81-101.
  13. Reychler L (2006) Challenges of peace research. International Journal of Peace Studies 11: 1-16.
  14. Tint BS, Prasad GK (2007) Peace education in India-academics, politics, and peace. The Canadian Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies 39: 23-37.
  15. Yeh TD (2006) The way to peace: a Buddhist perspective. International Journal of Peace Studies 11: 91-112.
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