Overpopulation And Poverty Essay With Outline

Some causes of poverty are, changing trends in a country’s economy, lack of education, high divorce rate which causes feminization of poverty, having a culture of poverty, overpopulation, epidemic diseases such as AIDS and malaria,[1]and environmental problems such as lack of rainfall and others.[2][3]

In California reduced poverty in the elderly with the creation of the social security program[4] Almost 50 percent of people in the world today live on less than $2.50 per day.[5]

The poverty rate among seniors in the United States is at 9 percent as of 2010[update].[6] In 1960 the official poverty rate among the elderly was 35 percent.[7] The Netherlands offers a universal pension and leads the world with a 1.7 percent poverty rate among the elderly.[citation needed] Extreme poverty may affect the lifespan and the lack of money via some type of pension system increases the poverty rate among the elderly worldwide.[8] Issues like hunger, illness and thirst are all causes and effects of poverty.

Extreme weather may be a cause of poverty in many countries. Drought, rainfall and flooding are some of the biggest causes of poverty by weather. When natural disasters do not gain media attention raising money becomes more difficult. This is made worse when governments spend money in the capitals instead of the poorest areas which need it most.[9]

In a BBC discussion, Tony Blair states that the cause of poverty is inequality of opportunity.[10]

Causes of Global Poverty[edit]

The International Food Study Institute had a brief on a collection of extensive studies that analyzed the causes of poverty, analyzing household data and reviewing empirical research in 20 countries. They found that some of the major causes of poverty were the inability of poor households to invest in property and education, limited access to credit, in some cases these instances produce more poverty via inherited poverty. The systematic exclusion of ethnic minorities, scheduled castes, tribes, women and people with disabilities and health issues. Persistence of poverty is partially attributed to these classes not having access to institutions and markets.[11]

War and violence may be some of the primary causes of poverty.[12] Political violence and organized crime have affected 39 countries since 2000, in those countries the poverty level is twice that of non-violent countries. These two items, poverty and violence may also feed themselves. When asked why young people joined gangs and rebel groups in half a dozen countries, two thirds of the respondents said that unemployment was their main reason, only one tenth cited a belief in the cause.[13]

Colonialism has been cited as a cause of poverty, this idea is rejected by Walter E. Williams citing that not all post colonial countries have high poverty rates.[14]

Third World countries have low GDP per capita percent taxed, middle income economies have average levels of GDP per capita taxed and developed countries have higher percent GDP per capita taxed.

Places like the Arctic and Antarctic are inhabitable but many people debate how much a role climate plays in Africa’s poverty.

Primary Causes by Country[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

In Bangladesh, the United Nations has found that marital instability is one of the main sources of poverty among women, along with overpopulation, and corruption of government.[15]

Canada[edit]

The Fraser Institute, a public policy think-tank have reported that characteristics increasing Canadians' risk of "experiencing persistent low income" include "having a physical or mental disability, being part of a lone-parent family, and having less than a high school education."

[16]

Philippines[edit]

From 1921 to 2001 food prices increased due to a change in the policies of commodity prices which increased the poverty rate.[17] From 1960 to 2009 slow economic growth has contributed to the persistence of poverty and has also contributed to the non-poor becoming poor. Although poverty has been reduced overall, the inequality of poverty has increased according to the Asian Development Bank. [18]

United States[edit]

Unemployment was the leading cause of poverty within the US. In 1999 and 2005, 71 percent of the families that were below the poverty line did not have any working family members. Among the families below the poverty line that had at least one family member working, low wages and insufficient benefits were also leading causes.[19]

South Africa[edit]

One of South Africa's major cause and effect of poverty is unemployment. Unemployment causes families to live in unsanitary conditions because a lack of financial means to improve living conditions. If the parents are unemployed, this can also affect how the child is brought up and what kind of education they receive. This issue has been recognized by the South African government and they have created organisations like the Expanded Public Works Program, also known as the EPWP. This program is an important gateway to labor absorption and provides income for poor families. Poverty stricken people now have the chance to receive income thanks to the jobs that the EPWP provides.[20]

= Main causes of poverty[edit]

Primary causes of poverty[edit]

  • Lack of control in local food[21]
  • Corruption: Corruption is both a major cause and a result of poverty around the world.
  • Lack of access to education[22]
  • Mental illness, Lack of proper psychiatric care
  • World Hunger, the economic development in the world.
  • Epidemic diseases
  • Population

Historical causes:[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^Lusted, Marcia Amidon (2010). Poverty. Edina, Minn.: ABDO Pub. p. 31. ISBN 9781604539578. 
  2. ^Harrison, Paul (1993). Inside the Third World: The Anatomy of Poverty (3. ed.). New York: Penguin Books. p. 20. ISBN 9780140172171. 
  3. ^White, Howard; Killick, Tony (2001). African Poverty at the Millennium: Causes, Complexities, and Challenges (1. print. ed.). Washington, D.C.: World Bank. p. 27. ISBN 0821348671. 
  4. ^[1]
  5. ^"Causes of Poverty — Global Issues". www.globalissues.org. Retrieved 2015-11-02. 
  6. ^West, Loraine A.; Cole, Samantha; Goodkind, Daniel; He, Wan (June 2014). 65+ in the United States: 2010(PDF) (Report). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 78. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  
  7. ^Social Security and the Evolution of Elderly Poverty
  8. ^Poverty among the Elderly
  9. ^Extreme weather can be the 'most important cause of poverty'
  10. ^Why poverty? Part 1 - BBC
  11. ^Ahmed,, Akhter U.; Hill, Ruth Vargas; Smith, Lisa C.; Frankenberger, Tim (October 2007). "Characteristics and causes of severe poverty and hunger"(PDF). 7 International Food Policy Research Institut: 4. Archived from the original(PDF) on August 12, 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  12. ^"Root Causes of Violent Conflict in Developing Countries."BMJ: British Medical Journal. 324: 342–345. 2002. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7333.342. PMC 1122271. PMID 11834564. 
  13. ^"The economics of violence". The Economist. 16 April 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  14. ^Williams, Walter. "Poverty Is Easy to Explain". The Freeman. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  15. ^"Discrimination, Inequality, and Poverty—A Human Rights Perspective". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  16. ^Charles Lammam and Hugh MacIntyre (2015). An Introduction to the State of Poverty in Canada. Fraser Institute. <https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/an-introduction-to-the-state-of-poverty-in-canada.pdf>
  17. ^Balisacan, Arsenio M. (October 1995). "Anatomy of Poverty during Adjustment: The Case of the Philippines". Economic Development and Cultural Change. 44 (1): 57. doi:10.1086/452200. ISSN 0013-0079. 
  18. ^Poverty in the Philippines : causes, constraints, and opportunities. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank. 2009. p. 39. ISBN 978-971-561-857-1. 
  19. ^"What causes poverty?". cpag.org.uk. Child Poverty Action Group. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 
  20. ^http://www.epwp.gov.za
  21. ^Thomas Pogge on Global Poverty
  22. ^Shah, Anup. "Causes of Poverty". globalissues.org. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 
  23. ^Factors of Poverty - The Big Five by Phil Bartle, PhD

What is Overpopulation?

Overpopulation is an undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth. Overpopulation is caused by number of factors. Reduced mortality rate, better medical facilities, depletion of precious resources are few of the causes which results in overpopulation. It is possible for a sparsely populated area to become densely populated if it is not able to sustain life.

Growing advances in technology with each coming year has affected humanity in many ways. One of these has been the ability to save lives and create better medical treatment for all. A direct result of this has been increased lifespan and the growth of the population. In the past fifty or so years, the growth of population has boomed and has turned into overpopulation. In the history of our species, the birth and death rate have always been able to balance each and maintain a population growth rate that is sustainable.

Since the time of the Bubonic Plague in the 1400’s, the growth of population has been on a constant increase. Between the time of the plague and the 21st century, there was been hundreds and thousands of wars, natural calamities and man-made hazards. However, none of these have made a dent on the population. Developing nations face the problem of overpopulation more than developed countries, but it affects most of the Earth as of now. When we are talking about overpopulation, we should first understand the causes of it.

Causes of Overpopulation

Decline in the Death Rate: At the root of overpopulation is the difference between the overall birth rate and death rate in populations. If the number of children born each year equals the number of adults that die, then the population will stabilize. Talking about overpopulation shows that while there are many factors that can increase the death rate for short periods of time, the ones that increase the birth rate do so over a long period of time. The discovery of agriculture by our ancestors was one factor that provided them with the ability to sustain their nutrition without hunting. This created the first imbalance between the two rates.

Better Medical Facilities: Following this came the industrial revolution. Technological advancement was perhaps the biggest reason why the balance has been permanently disturbed. Science was able to produce better means of producing food, which allowed families to feed more mouths. Medical science made many discoveries thanks to which they were able to defeat a whole range of diseases. Illnesses that had claimed thousands of lives till now were cured because of the invention of vaccines. Combining the increase in food supply with fewer means of mortality tipped the balance and became the starting point of overpopulation.

More Hands to Overcome Poverty: However, when talking about overpopulation we should understand that there is a psychological component as well. For thousands of years, a very small part of the population had enough money to live in comfort. The rest faced poverty and would give birth to large families to make up for the high infant mortality rate. Families that have been through poverty, natural disasters or are simply in need of more hands to work are a major factor for overpopulation. As compared to earlier times, most of these extra children survive and consume resources that are not sufficient in nature.

Technological Advancement in Fertility Treatment: With latest technological advancement and more discoveries in medical science, it has become possible for couple who are unable to conceive to undergo fertility treatment methods and have their own babies. Today there are effective medicines which can increases the chance of conception and lead to rise in birth rate. Moreover, due to modern techniques pregnancies today are far more safer.

Immigration: Many people prefer to move to developed countries like US, UK, Canada and Australia where best facilities are available in terms of medical, education, security and employment. The end result is that those people settle over there and those places become overcrowded. Difference between the number of people who are leaving the country and the number of people who enter narrows down which leads to more demand for food, clothes, energy and homes. This gives rise to shortage of resources. Though the overall population remains the same, it just affects the density of population making that place simply overcrowded.

Lack of Family Planning: Most developing nations have large number of people who are illiterate, live below the poverty line and have little or no knowledge about family planning. Getting their children married at an early age increase the chances of producing more kids. Those people are unable to understand the harmful effects of overpopulation and lack of quality education prompts them to avoid family planning measures.

Effects of Overpopulation

Depletion of Natural Resources: The effects of overpopulation are quite severe. The first of these is the depletion of resources. The Earth can only produce a limited amount of water and food, which is falling short of the current needs. Most of the environmental damage being seen in the last fifty odd years is because of the growing number of people on the planet. They are cutting down forests, hunting wildlife in a reckless manner, causing pollution and creating a host of problems. Those engaged in talking about overpopulation have noticed that acts of violence and aggression outside of a war zone have increased tremendously while competing for resources.

Degradation of Environment: With the overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, it has started producing some serious effects on our environment. Rise in the number of vehicles and industries have badly affected the quality of air. Rise in amount of CO2 emissions leads to global warming. Melting of polar ice caps, changing climate patterns, rise in sea level are few of the consequences that we might we have to face due to environment pollution.

Conflicts and Wars: Overpopulation in developing countries puts a major strain on the resources it should be utilizing for development. Conflicts over water are becoming a source of tension between countries, which could result in wars. It causes more diseases to spread and makes them harder to control. Starvation is a huge issue facing the world and the mortality rate for children is being fuelled by it. Poverty is the biggest hallmark we see when talking about overpopulation. All of this will only become worse if solutions are not sought out for the factors affecting our population. We can no longer prevent it, but there are ways to control it.

Rise in Unemployment: When a country becomes overpopulated, it gives rise to unemployment as there fewer jobs to support large number of people. Rise in unemployment gives rise to crime as people will steal various items to feed their family and provide them basic amenities of life.

High Cost of Living: As difference between demand and supply continues to expand due to overpopulation, it raises the prices of various commodities including food, shelter and healthcare. This means that people have to pay more to survive and feed their families.

Solutions to Overpopulation

Better Education: One of the first measures is to implement policies reflecting social change. Educating the masses helps them understand the need to have one or two children at the most. Similarly, education plays a vital role in understanding latest technologies like CloudDesktopOnline that are making huge waves in the world of computing. Families that are facing a hard life and choose to have four or five children should be discouraged. Family planning and efficient birth control can help in women making their own reproductive choices. Open dialogue on abortion and voluntary sterilization should be seen when talking about overpopulation.

Making People Aware of Family Planning: As population of this world is growing at a rapid pace, raising awareness among people regarding family planning and letting them know about serious after effects of overpopulation can help curb population growth. One of the best way is to let them know about various safe sex techniques and contraceptives methods available to avoid any unwanted pregnancy.

Tax Benefits or Concessions: Government of various countries might have to come with various policies related to tax exemptions to curb overpopulation. One of them might be to waive of certain part of income tax or lowering rates of income tax for those married couples who have single or two children. As we humans are more inclined towards money, this may produce some positive results.

Knowledge of Sex Education: Imparting sex education to young kids at elementary level should be must. Most parents feel shy in discussing such things with their kids which result in their children going out and look out for such information on internet or discuss it with their peers. Mostly, the information is incomplete which results in sexually active teenagers unaware of contraceptives and embarrassed to seek information about same. It is therefore important for parents and teachers to shed their old inhibitions and make their kids or students aware of solid sex education.

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Rinkesh is passionate about clean and green energy. He is running this site since 2009 and writes on various environmental and renewable energy related topics. He lives a green lifestyle and is often looking for ways to improve the environment around him.

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